Who's Who on the Gohonzon?

by Rev. Ryuei Michael McCormick

This Great Mandala is #81 in the GohonzonShu...

Namu Yakuo Bosatsu

Namu Monjushiri Bosatsu

Namu Fugen Bosatsu

Namu Miroku Bosatsu

The most common Gohonzon issued by Nichiren Shu to its members (made of silk)

The Provisional Bodhisattvas

The Buddhism of the Nikayas and Agamas, the source texts of basic Buddhism, recognizes only two bodhisattvas, Siddhartha Gautama before he attained buddhahood and Maitreya Bodhisattva who resides in the Tushita Heaven until it is his time to appear as the next Buddha in this world. The Nikayas and Agamas do accept the possibility that there might be other bodhisattvas, but none are named.

The Mahayana sutras, however, make the bodhisattva the primary ideal of Buddhist practice, and many bodhisattvas appear as models of that ideal and as celestial saviors who can assist others on their own journeys to buddhahood. Many of these celestial bodhisattvas are near equals to the Buddha in wisdom and in their power to help others. The celestial bodhisattvas are often portrayed as the attendants of the buddhas who reside in the various pure lands throughout the universe. A great many of these bodhisattvas appear in the Lotus Sutra, most notably: Manjushri (Beautiful-Lord) Bodhisattva, Avalokiteshvara (World-Voice-Perceiver) Bodhisattva, Bhaishajyaraja (Medicine-King) Bodhisattva, Maitreya (Loving-One) Bodhisattva, and Samantabhadra (Universal-Good) Bodhisattva. These bodhisattvas are well known figures in Mahayana Buddhism and appear in many other sutras.

In the Lotus Sutra, these bodhisattvas come from ideal worlds to hear the Dharma and they volunteer to teach the Lotus Sutra in this world after the Buddha's extinction. These bodhisattvas represent those who cultivate the six perfections over many lifetimes in order to attain buddhahood. They also assume that Shakyamuni Buddha only attained enlightenment within his current lifetime, and that his current buddhahood was the culmination of may eons of spiritual cultivation. The events of the Lotus Sutra challenge their view that buddhahood is attained through the gradual cultivation of the six perfections. Chapter 12 provides the example of the Dragon King's Daughter who attains enlightenment in an instant, while chapter 16 reveals that the Buddha actually attained enlightenment in the remote past and that his gradual cultivation of wisdom and merit in his present and past lives was itself an expedient means. In chapters 13 - 15, these bodhisattvas request that they be allowed to spread the Lotus Sutra after the Buddha's extinction, but the Buddha summons the Bodhisattvas of the Earth instead in chapter 15. In chapter 21, he gives the Bodhisattvas of the Earth the specific transmission and primary responsibility to spread the Lotus Sutra. Only in chapter 22 does Shakyamuni Buddha finally give the provisional bodhisattva a general transmission of the Lotus Sutra. According to Nichiren Shonin, the general transmission meant that the provisional bodhisattvas would spread the Lotus Sutra during the Former and Middle Ages of the Dharma, while the Bodhisattvas of the Earth who received the specific transmission would take over in the Latter Age of the Dharma. The provisional bodhisattvas are not granted the most difficult and crucial mission of spreading the Lotus Sutra in the Latter Age because they represent the theoretical teaching of the Lotus Sutra. The theoretical teaching of the first half of the Lotus Sutra teaches that all sentient beings have the potential to attain buddhahood through the gradual practice of the six perfections. This is the teaching that is to be spread during the Former and Middle Ages of the Dharma when there are still people who can cultivate themselves in this way. The Bodhisattvas of the Earth, however, represent the essential teaching of the Lotus Sutra. The essential teaching shows that buddhahood is immediate, primordial, without beginning or end, and ever present in the lives of those who have faith in the Eternal Shakyamuni Buddha. This is the teaching which must be spread during the Latter Age when no other teaching is radical enough to shake beings out of their complacency, obstinance, and spiritual blindness. Only the Bodhisattvas of the Earth, the original disciples of the Original Shakyamuni Buddha, are able to teach the essential teaching at such a time. Even then, however, the provisional bodhisattvas are still present and able to protect and assist the Bodhisattvas of the Earth in accomplishing their mission.

Namu Yakuo Bosatsu

Bhaishajyaraja Bodhisattva ~ Medicine King

This bodhisattva represents the healing power of the Buddha. He and his brother Yakujo Bosatsu (Bodhisattva Bhaishajyasamudgata - Medicine Superior) figure prominently in the Lotus Sutra. A Dictionary of Buddhist Terms and Concepts relates the following story about them:

"According to the Yakuo Yakujo Sutra (Sutra of Bodhisattvas Yakuo and Yakujo), in the remote past in the Middle Day of the Law of a Buddha called Rurikosho (Lapis Lazuli Brightness), Bodhisattva Yakuo was a rich man named Seishukuko (Constellation Light). He heard the Mahayana teachings from a monk called Nichizo (Sun Repository). Rejoicing, he presented beneficial medicines as an offering to Nichizo and other people, and vowed that all those who heard his name would be cured of illness. Seishukuko had a younger brother called Raikomyo (Lightning Glow), who also offered beneficial medicines to Nichizo and other people. These people praised the two brothers, calling the elder brother Yakuo (Medicine King) and the younger brother Yakujo (Superior Medicine). Seishukuko and Raikomyo, the sutra says, were reborn respectively as the Bodhisattvas Yakuo and Yakujo, and will in the future attain enlightenment as Buddhas called Jogen (Pure Eye) and Jozo (Pure Treasury), respectively." (p.508)

In the Lotus Sutra, Medicine-King Bodhisattva is mentioned by name among the bodhisattvas assembled in the first chapter. Chapter 10, "The Teacher of the Dharma," is addressed to Medicine-King Bodhisattva by Shakyamuni Buddha. In chapter 13, "Encouragement for Keeping the Sutra," he and Great Eloquence Bodhisattva along with their 20,000 attendants vow to the Buddha to expound the Lotus Sutra after his passing. Chapter 23, "The Previous Life of Medicine-King Bodhisattva," describes his past life as Gladly-Seen-By-All-Beings Bodhisattva who sets his own body on fire for 1,200 years as an offering to Sun-Moon-Pure-Bright-Virtue Buddha who had taught him the Lotus Sutra. In his very next life, he again became a disciple of Sun-Moon-Pure-Bright-Virtue Buddha. After that Buddha passed away he made 84,000 stupas to enshrine the relics and then set his arms on fire for 72,000 years as an offering to the stupas. In the end he miraculously restored his arms by the power of his merits, virtues, and wisdom. In this story, the bodhisattva's offering of his body and arms is a metaphorical way of showing the bodhisattva's willingness to offer all of his deeds (his arms) and even his very life (his body) for the sake of the Buddha. In chapter 26, "Dharanis," Medicine-King Bodhisattva offers dharani-spells for the protection of the teachers of the Lotus Sutra. Another past life story of Medicine-King Bodhisattva is given in chapter 27, "King Wonderful-Adornment as the Previous Life of a Bodhisattva." In the time of Cloud Thunderpeal-Star-King-Flower-Wisdom Buddha, Medicine-King Bodhisattva and Superior-Medicine Bodhisattva were the sons of King Wonderful-Adornment, named Pure-Store and Pure-Eyes respectively. The Buddha was preaching the Lotus Sutra, and the two sons asked their mother, Queen Pure-Virtue, to come with them to make offerings to the Buddha. Their mother, however, asked them to first receive permission from King Wonderful-Adornment who was attached to the teachings of the brahmanas (the Vedic priests). The two sons then performed various miracles for their father who was so impressed that he took faith in the Dharma. He not only gave them permission but also accompanied them and together they all became disciples of the Buddha. King Wonderful-Adornment then praised his two sons, declaring that they were his teachers who had done the work of the Buddha by causing him to convert.

Medicine King Bodhisattva and Superior-Medicine Bodhisattva are sometimes depicted as the attendants of Amoghasiddhi Tathagata. Medicine-King Bodhisattva in that case is considered one of the forms of Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva.

The Great Master Chih-i, was considered to be an appearance of Medicine-King Bodhisattva because he attained enlightenment upon reading the Medicine-King chapter of the Lotus Sutra.

Icon: Bodhisattva standing or sitting on a lotus flower and holding a willow branch in his right hand while left hand is closed.

Namu Monjushiri Bosatsu

Manjushri Bodhisattva ~ Beautiful-Lord

This bodhisattva represents the wisdom of the Buddha and is especially associated with the Perfection of Wisdom Sutras which he is often shown carrying along with a sword which cuts through delusions. A Dictionary of Buddhist Terms and Concepts relates the following information about him:

"He is revered as the chief of the bodhisattvas. With Fugen, he is depicted as one of the two bodhisattvas who attend Shakyamuni Buddha. Monjushiri is generally shown at the Buddha's left, riding a lion, and represents the virtues of wisdom and enlightenment. In contrast, Shakyamuni's right-hand attendant, Bodhisattva Fugen, represents the virtues of truth and practice. According to the Monjushiri Hatsunehan Sutra (Sutra of the Nirvana of Monjushiri), Monjushiri was born to a Brahman family in Shravasti and joined the Buddhist Order, converting a great number of people." (p.267)

Taigen Daniel Leighton says of him:

"Manjushri is the bodhisattva of wisdom and insight, penetrating into the fundamental emptiness, universal sameness, and true nature of all things. Manjushri, whose name means "noble, gentle one," sees into the essence of each phenomenal event. This essential nature is that not a thing has any fixed existence separate in itself, independent from the whole world around it. The work of wisdom is to see through the illusory self-other dichotomy, our imagined estrangement from our world. Studying the self in this light, Manjushri's flashing awareness realizes the deeper, vast quality of self, liberated from all our commonly unquestioned, fabricated characteristics.

"With his relentless commitment to uncovering ultimate reality, Manjushri embodies the paramita of prajna, the perfection of wisdom, both as a practice and as the body of sutras so named. Although Manjushri is especially associated with emptiness teaching and the Madhyamika branch of Mahayana teaching, he is not present in the earliest of the Prajnaparamita sutras. However, Manjushri is one of the most prominent bodhisattvas in all of the Mahayana sutras, and is sometimes considered to be based on a historical person associated with Shakyamuni Buddha. One of the earliest bodhisattvas, Manjushri was popular in India by the fourth century, if not earlier, and was included in the first depictions of a bodhisattva pantheon in the fifth and sixth centuries. Images of Manjushri appeared in Japan by the early eighth century." (Bodhisattva Archetypes, p. 93)

Manjushri Bodhisattva appears in many Mahayana sutras such as the Vimalakirti Sutra and the Flower Ornament Sutra, and many others. He is considered to be a near-equal to the Buddha. At times, he is even said to have already realized buddhahood, but he is still voluntarily acting in the capacity of a bodhisattva. Some sutras even call him the teacher of all the Buddhas, which is the role he takes in the Lotus Sutra where he answers the questions of the future buddha Maitreya. In Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations, Paul Williams summarizes the teachings about Manjushri Bodhisattva that appear in these sutras.

"Manjushri has now attained the tenth stage of a Bodhisattva. He is asked why he does not proceed staightway to full Buddhahood. The reply is that in fully understanding emptiness and acting accordingly there is nothing more to do. He has let go of the notion of full Buddhahood. He no longer seeks enlightenment; indeed, in the light of emptiness he cannot attain enlightenment. In saying this, of course, Manjusri indicates that he is already fully enlightened."(p.239)

In the first chapter of the Lotus Sutra, "Introductory," Manjushri Bodhisattva answers Maitreya Bodhisattva's questions about the ray of light emitted by Shakyamuni Buddha. Manjushri Bodhisattva revealed that in a past life, when he was known as Wonderful Light Bodhisattva, he had witnessed Sun-Moon-Light Buddha also produce a ray of light just before teaching the Lotus Sutra, so he surmised that Shakyamuni Buddha was also about to teach the Lotus Sutra. Manjushri Bodhisattva reappears in the middle of chapter 12, "Devadatta," from the palace of the Dragon-King Sagara in the ocean where he had been teaching the Lotus Sutra. He then introduces all the innumerable bodhisattvas that he had taught, including the eight year old daughter of the dragon king. The dragon king's daughter then proceeds to demonstrate the instant attainment of buddhahood. In chapter 14, "Peaceful Practices," it is Manjushri Bodhisattva who asks the Buddha how ordinary bodhisattvas should expound the Lotus Sutra in the evil world after his passing. Finally, in chapter 24, "Wonderful-Voice Bodhisattva," it is Manjushri Bodhisattva who asks about the jeweled lotus flowers which float down from the sky to herald the appearance of Wonderful-Voice Bodhisattva, and it is he who asks the Buddha about that bodhisattva and asks to see him. Based on a passage in the Chinese translation of the Flower Garland Sutra, Manjushri Bodhisattva is believed to have his earthly home on Mt. Wu-t'ai in China.

Icon: A 16 year old youth riding a lion. He holds a sword in his right hand and a blue lotus flower in his left. He wears a five pointed crown.

Namu Fugen Bosatsu

Samantabhadra Bodhisattva ~ Universal-Good

This bodhisattva represents all of the vows and good causes made by the Buddha. An excellent description of the role of Samantabhadra Bodhisattva is given by Taigen Daniel Leighton in his book Bodhisattva Archetypes:

"Samantabhadra is the bodhisattva of enlightening activity in the world, representing the shining function of wisdom. Samantabhadra also embodies the luminous web of the interconnectedness of all beings, and radiant visions that express it...

"Samantabhadra and Manjushri are often paired together as attendants on either side of Shakyamuni Buddha, with Manjushri on his lion representing the essence of wisdom, and Samantabhadra, mounted on an elephant, representing the application of wisdom actively benefiting the world.

"The primary scriptural source for Samantabhadra is the Flower Ornament (Avatamsaka) Sutra, for which he is the principle bodhisattva. Thus he represents the elaborate teachings on the array of practical activities of bodhisattvas, both of this sutra and of the profound Chinese Huayan School which developed from it. (Avatamsaka is Huayan in Chinese, Kegon in Japanese.) The diversity of beneficial expressions of bodhisattvas in the world, and spectacular visions of the interconnectedness of the ecosystems of the entire universe, are Samantabhadra's province. He is featured as well in the last chapter of the Lotus Sutra as a protector of that sutra and its devotees." (p.121)

Samantabhadra Bodhisattva is particularly well known in East Asia for his ten great vows which appear in chapter 40 of the Flower Ornament Sutra. The following explanation of Samantabhadra Bodhisattva and enumeration of his ten vows is given by Francis H. Cook:

"Samantabhadra is the Bodhisattva who symbolizes the practices of the Bodhisattva. His vows and practices exemplify the ideal course of conduct in the aspiring Buddhist in those phases of activity which are conceived as causes for the ensuing enlightenment-result. This course of conduct is exemplified by the activities of the youth Sudhana in the final chapters of the Avatamsaka Sutra. The result is the knowledge of, and the merging into, the universe of identity and interdependence, which is the experience of the perfectly enlightened Buddhas. Samantabhadra occupies a very important place in the sutra, since that work is primarily concerned with these causal practices. The vows of Samantabhadra, which must be sincerely duplicated by each aspirant, who really is Samantabhadra, are as follows:

1. Honor all Buddhas.
2. Praise the Tathagatas.
3. Make offerings to all Buddhas.
4. Confess all past transgressions of the Law.
5. Rejoice in the virtues and happiness of others (mudita).
6. Request the Buddha to teach the Dharma.
7. Request the Buddha to dwell in the world.
8. Follow the Dharma.
9. Always to benefit other beings.
10. Turn over one's own accumulated merit to others (parinamana)."
(Hua-Yen Buddhism, p.78)

Samantabhadra Bodhisattva appears in chapter 28 of the Lotus Sutra. He comes from a world far to the east in order to hear and receive the Lotus Sutra. He promises to protect and support those who keep the Lotus Sutra in the latter days after the passing of the Buddha. He then provides dharani spells for the practitioners of the Lotus Sutra. He even declares that the ability to keep the Lotus Sutra is made possible through the aid of his supernatural powers. He goes on to say that those who keep the sutra, read and recite it, memorize it, understand it, and act according to it are doing the same practice as he does. Nevertheless, the Buddha tells Samantabhadra Bodhisattva that he should greet a keeper of the Lotus Sutra in the same way that he would greet the Buddha himself. The Sutra of Meditation on Samantabhadra Bodhisattva, which is the last part of the Threefold Lotus Sutra, elaborates on the promise of Samantabhadra in chapter 28 to appear on his six-tusked white elephant to those who practice repentance and recite the Lotus Sutra. In the Sutra on Meditation it is explained how the practitioner can visualize Samantabhadra Bodhisattva and eventually the entire Ceremony in the Air.

Samantabhadra Bodhisattva is believed by many Chinese Buddhists to reside on Mt. Omei in western China.

Icon: A 16 year old youth riding an elephant. Hands in gassho. He wears a five pointed crown.

Namu Miroku Bosatsu

Maitreya Bodhisattva ~ Loving-One

Maitreya Bodhisattva is the future buddha of this world who currently resides in the Tushita Heaven. A Dictionary of Buddhist Terms and Concepts relates the following information about him:

"A bodhisattva predicted to succeed Shakyamuni as a future Buddha. Also called Ajita, meaning 'invincible.' Some accounts view him as a historical personage who preceded the Buddha in death. He is said to have been reborn in the Tushita Heaven where he is now expounding the Law to the heavenly beings there. It is said that he will reappear in this world 5.670 million years after Shakyamuni's death, attain Buddhahood, and save the people in Shakyamuni's stead. For this reason he is also sometimes called Miroku Buddha. Belief in Miroku prevailed in India around the beginning of the first century A.D., and spread to China and Japan. In the fourth century, a monk named Maitreya (c. 270-350) became famous as a scholar of the Consciousness-Only school, and was later identified with this bodhisattva." (pp. 266-7)

Maitreya Bodhisattva is the only bodhisattva who is revered by both Theravadin and Mahayana Buddhists (aside from Siddhartha Gautama and his past lives as a bodhisattva). His coming is predicted in the Pali Canon as well as in the Mahayana Sutras.

In addition to the legendary fourth century teacher of the same name, Maitreya Bodhisattva has had many other appearances in history. The most famous is of the jovial monk whose statue is often mistaken as that of the Buddha. Taigen Daniel Leighton relates the following about this well-known but misunderstood figure:

"In China Maitreya is nearly synonymous with his supposed incarnation as the historical tenth-century Chinese Zen monk Budai, whose Japanese name, Hotei, may be more familiar in the West. Chinese images of Budai, or Hotei, are frequently labeled simply 'Maitreya' (Milo in Chinese) such that in popular Chinese awareness they are virtually identical. Hotei is legendary as a wandering sage with supernatural powers who spent his time in village streets rather than in the security of temples. His image is recognizable as the disheveled, fat, jolly 'laughing buddha' whose statue is seen in many Chinese restaurants and in all Chinese Buddhist temples.

"Hotei's name means 'cloth bag,' as he carried a sack full of candies and toys to give to children, with whom he is often depicted in play. This scruffy Buddhist Santa Claus expands our view of Maitreya's warmth and loving-kindness. Hotei's fat belly and affinity with children reflects yet another aspect of Maitreya in popular folk religion, that of a fertility deity. Maitreya was sometimes prayed to by those who wanted children, especially in Korea."(Bodhisattva Archetypes, p. 260-1)

Bodhisattva Maitreya plays a large role in the Lotus Sutra. In the first chapter, it is he who inquires of Manjushri Bodhisattva the reason for the miraculous signs displayed by the Buddha. Taigen Daniel Leighton summarizes and comments on this chapter as follows:

"Maitreya appears in a highly ambivalent light in some of the early Mahayana sutras. In the very first chapter of the Lotus Sutra, Shakyamuni Buddha emits a light from between his eyebrows that puzzles Maitreya, who questions Manjushri. Manjushri reminds Maitreya that in a remotely past buddha land they had witnessed a similar light emitting from a previous buddha, a light which had heralded the teaching of the Lotus Sutra on behalf of that buddha by a bodhisattva named Fine Luster, none other than Manjushri himself.

"Among Fine Luster's eight hundred disciples, one named Fame Seeker Bodhisattva was actually Maitreya in a former life. This Bodhisattva Seeker of Fame was named thus because he craved personal profit and advantage; although he read and memorized numerous sutras, he derived no benefit and quickly forgot most of them. Although Maitreya, or at least his past life, is thus dishonored by his former teacher Manjushri, the bodhisattva of wisdom goes on to say that the slothful Fame Seeker also did many kind deeds. These allowed him to train with numerous buddhas over many lifetimes, until now he was finally the Bodhisattva Maitreya, destined to be the next buddha." (Ibid, p.246-7)

Maitreya Bodhisattva has a large role in the Ceremony of the Air as well. It is he who inquires after the origin of the Bodhisattvas of the Earth in chapter 15. He is also the one who asks how Shakyamuni Buddha could have taught them when he had only attained enlightenment 40 years before their appearance. It is this second question which prompts the revelation of the Buddha's enlightenment in the uncountably distant past in chapter 16. In chapter 16, it is Maitreya Bodhisattva who heads the assembly in declaring that they will faithfully receive the Buddha's answer. In chapters 17 and 18 it is Maitreya Bodhisattva whom the Buddha addresses when explaining the boundless merits of those who accept the teaching of the Buddha's unborn and undying nature with faith.

The closing chapter of the Lotus Sutra makes reference to Maitreya Bodhisattva in a more favorable light than in the first chapter. Taigen Daniel Leighton explains:

"Although the Lotus Sutra opens with Manjushri's rather dim view of Maitreya's distant past, the final chapter of the Lotus Sutra, delineating Samantabhadra's protection of students of the sutra, offers a more positive view of Maitreya and his future. Samantabhadra certifies that those who read the Lotus Sutra and understand its import will be reborn in Maitreya's Tushita Heaven. Samantabhadra describes this realm as highly meritorious and beneficial, as Maitreya abides there already possessing the marks of a buddha, accompanied by a retinue of bodhisattvas and goddesses." (Ibid, p.247)

Icon: Bodhisattva wearing a three peaked crown in pensive posture with right ankle on on left knee, left leg hanging over lotus seat, right hand touching cheek with only two fingers, left hand resting on right ankle.

Copyright by Ryuei Michael McCormick. 2002.

Lotus World by Rev. Ryuei
NewLotus World: an Illustrated Guide to the GohonzonNew
This portion of Nichiren's Coffeehouse was converted into a book to celebrate their 25th anniversary by the Nichiren Buddhist Temple of San Jose and the Rev. Ryuei Michael McCormick in 2005. Ryuei updated the text and it was illustrated by Matt Miller and Rika Williams. It is now the most comprehensive guidebook to Nichiren's Lotus Sutra Mandala in the English language and includes a framable 8.5x11 Pictoral Gohonzon of the Great Mandala of the Nichiren School!

If you have any questions, please Email Ryuei. To order this gem of a book, mail your check or money order for $20 (incl. shipping) to the Nichiren Buddhist Temple of San Jose.

Nichiren Buddhist Temple of San Jose
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Table of Contents: The Odaimoku | The Buddhas | Four Bodhisattvas | Provisional Bodhisattvas | Esoteric Deities | The Shravaka Disciples | Vedic Deities | Four Heavenly Kings | More Devas... | Shinto Deities | Lineage Chart | Vedic Cosmology | Bibliography | GohonzonShu

More Articles by Ryuei
Odaimoku as Hua-t'ou
What is the Gohonzon?
Life of Nichiren Shonin
History of the Hokke-shu
Building the Treasure Tower
The Sole Efficacy of Odaimoku
Nam or Namu? Does it really matter?
Map of the Shutei Mandala
1. Dai Jikoku Tenno
2. Namu Muhengyo Bosatsu
3. Namu Jogyo Bosatsu
4. Namu Taho Nyorai
5. Namu Myoho Renge Kyo
6. Namu Shakyamuni Buddha
7. Namu Jyogyo Bosatsu
8. Namu Anryugyo Bosatsu
9. Dai Bishamon Tenno
10. Fudo Myo-o
11. Dai Nittenno (Sun)
12. Dairokuten Ma-o (Mara)
13. Dai Bontenno (Brahma)
14. Namu Sharihotsu Sonja
15. Namu Yaku-o Bosatsu
16. Namu Monjushiri Bosatsu
17. Namu Fugen Bosatsu
18. Namu Miroku Bosatsu
19. Namu Dai Kasho Sonja
20. Shakudaijannin Dai-o (Indra)
21. Dai Gattenji (Moon)
22. Myojo Tenji (Stars)
23. Aizen Myo-o
24. Daibadatta
25. Ashura King
26. Wheel Turning King
27. King Ajatashatru
28. Naga-raja (Dragon King)
29. Kishimojin (Demon Mother)
30. Jurasetsunyo
31. Namu Tendai Daishi
32. Namu Ryuju Bosatsu
33. Namu Myoraku Daishi
34. Namu Dengyo Daishi
35. Dai Komoko Tenno
36. "This Great Mandara was
for the first time revealed in the
Jambudvipa 2,220 and some years
after the extinction of the Buddha."

37. Tensho Daijin
38. The signature of Nichiren
39. Hachiman Dai Bosatsu
40. Dai Zocho Tenno
41. The 3rd month of the 3rd year
of Koan, Kanoe-tatsu

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